Is it Really Necessary to be Poor?
The story of the rich young man in Matthew 19 clearly illustrates the dangerous nature of wealth. When the topic comes up, however, many Christians quickly point out that Christ only said “if you would be perfect”, and that it would be “hard” but not “impossible” for the rich to enter heaven. After all, while a camel going through a needle may seem impossible, Christ did say that nothing is impossible with God! Going even further, some have claimed that the eye of the needle was merely the name of a narrow gate or pass, through which a camel could pass, if perhaps with difficulty.
Before addressing this argument, it is important to clarify that Gospel poverty does not entail destitution, the lack of basic necessities. Father Dubay’s book Happy Are You Poor explains this very well. Our summary of his book can be read here.
Necessary for What?
God’s mercy being infinite, it is of course true that voluntary poverty is not “necessary for salvation”. The only thing necessary for salvation is to humbly ask for the mercy of God. Someone can live a totally depraved life and be saved by asking for mercy at the last moment. It should be fairly obvious, however, that the message of the Gospel is not “do whatever you want and then ask for mercy at the last moment”. The real question for the Christian should be: is voluntary poverty an integral part of the Christian life?
Further, there is an interesting aspect to the idea of camels squeezing through a narrow gate. There is much debate as to whether the initial word in the Gospel was “camel” or “cable”, whether an “eye of the needle” gate existed, and so forth. Still, at least some commentators think the saying means that a camel could get through, but only if it was unloaded of all its baggage. After all, the rich are not a distinct species; they are human beings like the rest of us, with the addition of a lot of “stuff”. Christ may have been making a humorous comparison between a heavily burdened camel stuck in a narrow gate, and the wealthy who trudge through life spiritually weighed down by their possessions. The birds and wildflowers are carefree, while the rich need many barns to store their goods.
The inherently burdening nature of wealth, however, is denied by some Christians. According to them, when the Gospel counsels “poverty” what is really meant is mere detachment. They insist that so long as one isn’t inordinately attached to possessions, wealth is harmless or even beneficial.
For one thing, this idea ignores the vital connection between physical reality and spiritual attitudes. As Father Dubay puts it, for wounded human beings “possessing imperceptibly slips into being possessed.” This is a Gnostic age that downplays material reality, an age which is “spiritual but not religious”. Christianity, however, is firmly rooted in the material, and takes physical actions very seriously. It is ironic that many who argue for mere inward detachment are simultaneously engaged in arguing for the importance of concrete, material acts of religion.
Our age is also an extremely individualist one. It is very telling that when the topic of poverty is discussed, the focus tends to be on the effects wealth may or may not have on one’s individual spirituality. The Gospel does not overlook the personal aspect, but puts even more stress on the social aspect of wealth. Whatever loopholes there may be in the story of the rich young man, there are no such loopholes in the picture presented by Matthew 25, James 2:14-17, and 1 John 3. If we don’t love and serve our brothers and sisters, then we don’t love God. This love can’t remain a spiritual thing of “thoughts and prayers”, but demands concrete action.
Christian love is absolutely incompatible with purchasing luxuries for ourselves while our brothers and sisters are starving. Such selfish actions also expose so-called “detachment” that is devoid of practical results as a pious sham. Someone who was truly detached would be only too willing to give surplus wealth away to feed the hungry.
To me, it seems that there is a fairly watertight case for the essential role of voluntary poverty, at least when the social dimension is taken into account. In one sense, however, the very fact that we’re discussing whether it is an essential practice highlights a problem. Here is an aspect of Christian spirituality that is extensively discussed in Sacred Scripture and that has been recommended in glowing terms by numerous saints. Given all this, why are we debating about whether it is essential? It seems rather like a debate about whether a good night’s sleep is important to academic or athletic performance the next day. Sure, you could possibly succeed without it; but why be so quick to dismiss something of such obvious value?
The folly of this dismissal can be seen by comparing Catholic attitudes toward voluntary poverty with Catholic attitudes toward the Rosary. The Rosary is certainly an excellent prayer, but it isn’t mentioned in scripture, and obviously isn’t necessary for living a good Christian life, let alone for salvation. Yet there are Rosary confraternities, books of rosary meditations, programs and articles on how to say the rosary, and organizations dedicated to promoting it. Many Catholics pray the rosary every day. All well and good. The contrast with voluntary poverty, however, is striking. Shouldn’t we put at least as much effort into practicing, promoting, and reflecting on voluntary poverty as we put into practicing, promoting, and reflecting on the Rosary and other non-biblical religious practices? Perhaps if Catholics reclaimed this traditional yet neglected element of the Faith, our Church would be transformed.
Excellent comment about the camel only getting through the needle’s eye if it can unload its “baggage”. That says a lot.
Yes, I thought that was an interesting way of looking at it. The danger, of course, is that a life of wealth will make it impossible to “unload” it all; it isn’t done easily, even in the face of death.
I too try to live by the Gospel and Fr. Dubay’s book has been a center of my efforts since I discovered it about ten years ago. I consider voluntary poverty essential to my faith life. I am happy to find your site! Voluntary poverty is challenging in our society, and I have found little interest, much less support, for it in the parishes or the faith groups to which I’ve belonged. What do you think of the idea that voluntary poverty is a “charism” to which only some people are called?
Hello Nancy, I’m glad you found our website!
My experience is similar to yours; there is very little support for the concept of voluntary poverty, probably because it flies in the face of our culture’s assumptions.
I like the way that Father Dubay clarified the idea of voluntary poverty as a special charism. We’re all called to a certain level of voluntary poverty, and certain exceptional individuals are called to a more radical level. For instance, St. Benedict Joseph Labre lived as a tramp, possessing absolutely nothing. Most of us are not called to that extreme form of poverty. But the Gospel calls us all to live simply, to avoid superfluous wealth and luxuries, and to give to the poor in a sacrificial manner.
I think the emphasis on poverty to serve our brothers and sisters in Christ rather than the emphasis on poverty as beneficial for one’s personal spirituality helps to clarify this. Nobody is exempt from the call to love our neighbors as ourselves. If we love others as ourselves, and their needs are greater and more urgent than ours, it should be natural to give to them rather than to keep wealth for ourselves.
In response to the comment about the rosary, I would say that since I have been praying four rosaries a day and after joining the Militia of the Immaculata, my love for the poor has grown. My heart is transforming to be more Christlike because I am reflecting so much on Christ’s life through the mysteries, which discuss Jesus’ life as found in the Gospels. I have started discerning with the Lay Missionaries of Charity after my exposure to the Franciscan Friars of the Renewal. The CFRs are influenced by St. Teresa of Calcutta. Both the CFRs and the MCs devote extraordinary amounts of time to prayer. Granted, not everyone who prays one set of mysteries of the rosary ends up completely transformed, but I am a huge advocate of saying all the mysteries each day as it has changed my life and how I treat the poor, especially.
Hello Jen, I agree with you. The Rosary is a beautiful prayer, and I pray it with my family every day. As I pointed out, the Rosary isn’t necessary for salvation, but that doesn’t mean we should ignore or dismiss it!
In my interview with Tyler Hambley (https://happyareyoupoor.com/podcast/peter-maurin-house/) there is a good example of how a regular habit of prayer can transform the rest of life. Tyler talked about how his experience with regularly praying with a group of fellow Christians led them to take concrete action to aid the poor.
Thanks for sharing the interview!
To clarify my comment as I in no way wanted to insinuate that you were suggesting we ignore the rosary, although the Bible doesn’t say to pray the rosary, because the rosary is meditation on Scripture, I can understand why there is so much devotion to it and how transformative in can be. That would be amazing if more promoters of the rosary were also spreading the message of voluntary poverty because if the rosary is supposed to help us become more Christlike, then automatically we would embrace voluntary poverty. Perhaps that will be one of my missions in life: to spread the rosary and voluntary poverty! I thank you for all that you do and for helping me connect the rosary with voluntary poverty.